Predictive maintenance has become a worldwide accepted practice and is being implemented and finely tuned by nearly every industry category.
Locating, defining, and acting on potential problems before they become catastrophic is the main objective of a predictive maintenance program. Routine monitoring is the most effective tactic for locating potential problem areas and can prompt invaluable follow-up inspections. Often, upon a thorough inspection with state-of-the-art equipment, numerous issues can be identified and rectified, thereby avoiding critical unplanned downtime and ensuring a more-efficient operation.
Monitoring motor performance with properly trained technicians using modern equipment allows plant managers to dictate their own downtime, improve plant operations, and quickly identify poorly performing equipment.
What to monitor
When establishing a new PdM program or enhancing an existing one, defining which motors should be monitored must be the first consideration.
Criticality, the number of starts and stops, starting loads, ambient temperature, ease of testing, manpower, and availability of spares are concerns that must be considered. Every situation is different and each requires individual considerations, but the main objectives and basic plans will be similar. Motors that have a history of poor performance should be monitored more often.
It is vital to the success of the predictive maintenance program that motor importance be defined, a routine schedule established and followed, and the indicated repairs and adjustments made in timely manner.
How to monitor
Predicting imminent motor failures requires knowledge, experience, and as many “tools” as are feasible to use. The more tools a technician has and uses properly, the more likely it is that he or she will be able to predict the health and longevity of the assets in use. Motor monitoring has become a vital tool with two facets that must be considered and fully utilized to obtain a successful diagnosis of the motor’s condition: offline testing and online monitoring.
The motor itself has numerous components, including copper winding wire, insulation systems, bearings, and other mechanical and electrical features that must be tested and trended. The insulation system consists of the very thin insulation manufactured onto the winding or magnet wire and the ground-wall insulation that protects the magnet wire in the slots. Off-line testing equipment can effectively assess the condition of these insulation systems, and when the data is properly trended, it will aid in predicting the motor’s ability to remain in service and whether and when repairs and/or adjustments may be indicated.
An effective offline test should consist of winding resistance, meg-ohm, high-potential, or step-voltage tests and surge tests. Winding resistance can locate shorted turns, open leads, and phase imbalance issues. The meg-ohm test will identify grounded and contaminated windings. The high-potential test looks for poor ground-wall insulation, and the surge test locates turn-to-turn or copper-to-copper weaknesses. It should be noted that the surge test is the only test that can identify weakness in the turn insulation long before such weakness becomes a hard-welded fault that will result in rapid winding failure.
Online equipment has become the tool of choice for many maintenance personnel, as it is safe, quick, and not intrusive, and it provides an enormous amount of information in one report. Online testers can locate electrical problems and many mechanical issues that might otherwise go undiagnosed. Often motors fail and are repaired or replaced and returned to service without determining the “root cause” of the failure. Online equipment can identify subtle issues with power quality such as harmonics, low or high voltage, and voltage unbalance situations. Rotor bar problems, bearing issues, misalignment and many other problem areas also can be identified. All of these can affect motor efficiency.
One major domain that is identified and tracked through motor monitoring is efficiency.
Efficiency is defined as the ratio of useful work performed to the energy expended in producing it (output power divided by input power). Efficiency is usually described using one of three metrics: nominal efficiency, operating efficiency, or minimum efficiency.
Nominal efficiency is that value assigned to a set or group of motors by the manufacturer and designated on the motor’s nameplate. Operating efficiency is the true efficiency of the motor as it is operating within its actual and normal environment. Minimum efficiency is the lowest efficiency value any motor within a “test sample” must maintain. Modern test equipment will define the operating efficiency of the motor being tested.