There appears to be no relief in sight from rising energy prices. Without exception, industrial facilities nationwide are feeling the bite of soaring energy costs. Plant managers and their corporate counterparts, however, have more control over this important, highly manageable cost than they might think.
Buying system components on the basis of first cost or low bid frequently overlooks potential improvement opportunities in both reliability and efficiency. Sometimes, companies take advantage of utility incentives by replacing single inefficient system components with upgrades that are more efficient by 1% to 5%, providing long-term potential savings of thousands of dollars. Unfortunately, without reviewing the efficiency opportunities available throughout the system, upgrades usually fall well short of their full potential.
The best approach to energy efficiency for companies with lean margins or aggressive goals is continuous improvement. A continuous energy improvement program starts with a commitment from management to develop a long-term plan for improved energy productivity and performance. It then continues with a strategic energy management plan having measurable cost reduction goals and key performance indicators at the plant, product line and systems level. A continuous improvement plan assigns accountabilities for achieving energy performance goals, engages employees with training and recognition and provides opportunities for vendor involvement. In addition, it may include utility and public assistance for technical support and financial incentives.
A continuous improvement program for motor systems can help industrial facilities realize significant energy savings; improved reliability, systems management and spares utilization; and improved productivity for maintenance personnel. Add to this better control of downtime duration, and a motor system continuous improvement program becomes an essential success strategy in a highly competitive, global marketplace.
The first step in a motor systems continuous energy improvement program is making a commitment to change either in business practices or systems, preferably both. Of course, you’ll also want to establish an energy management policy. Assign an electric motor system champion, or several champions, to supervise efficiency initiatives for pumps, compressors, refrigeration and air-handling equipment and constant-torque loads. Set goals and objectives. Identify key performance indicators such as the ratio of output to energy consumption, build an up-to-date motor system analytical database and get your motor service center test results on file along with records of root cause failure analyses. Review system component baseline performance at specific intervals.
Manage your motor purchase, operations and maintenance from a life-cycle cost perspective. Record and assess your motor and driven-equipment population. Document and assess electrical output, load measurements and hours of operation. Document process output measurements and assess true needs or requirements. Establish system component pre-failure action plans. Work with, and encourage, qualified vendors that recognize the wisdom of unselfishly focusing on your big picture and supporting your facility systems. Educate your staff using available systems training tools, but avoid using product-specific or biased materials.
Most importantly, commit to continuing the search for lasting value. Measure success based on the answers to four key questions:
- Did we make money?
- Did anyone get hurt?
- Did we pollute anything?
- Did we minimize our lifecycle cost (including energy)?
Why driven systems?
The following example demonstrates why driven systems are important. Chronic maintenance and high energy cost on an effluent pumping system plagued a certain paper mill. The system for treating wastewater used three 100-hp pumps. Because the system’s control scheme permitted excess pumping, it needed a combination of throttling and bypass valves to modulate the flow. The system cavitated and vibration fatigued the process piping and shortened equipment life.
A systems analysis evaluated ways to improve the motor, pump, distribution system and desired output characteristics. The result was a motor system optimization project that installed variable-frequency drives, replaced worn pump impellers and other components, and integrated system control and instrumentation. The efficiency improvement project saved the mill an estimated 700,000 kWh of electrical energy per year valued at $32,000. The reliability improvement will contribute $10,000 in maintenance cost reductions. In short, the estimated project payback of 15 months represents a simple ROI of nearly 70%.
But a continuous energy improvement program doesn’t end there. The champion involved in the assessment and optimization decisions continues to monitor, document and factor system characteristics with KPIs, using the newly installed instrumentation. If an undesirable system trend or change emerges, the plant deals with it appropriately using its pre-failure action planning. This continuous improvement step ensures that process needs are met, payback is realized and additional efficiency and reliability savings can continue to accrue well beyond the original payback period.
Electrical supply systems also benefit from efficiency improvements and optimization. The common byproduct of inefficiency in many electrical supply systems is heat, the most virulent enemy of electrical component reliability.
Heat reduces a motor’s useful life and adversely affects supply feeder components. A 2% voltage imbalance can increase motor loss by as much as 10%, raise motor winding temperature by 8ºC and decrease efficiency by 1%. A 10ºC temperature rise halves motor winding life expectancy, according to the Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA). Not only does the motor suffer, but every electrical component and conductor in that same unbalanced circuit suffers the same exposure and ultimate fate. Other thieves of efficiency and enemies of electrical system reliability include poor power conditions, voltage drop, harmonics, line transients and mechanical over- and under-loading.
On the electrical side, too, the champion continues to monitor KPIs and relies on pre-failure action planning when trends go south. If the electrical system condition is less than good, motor-driven system mechanical optimization will probably fail to meet efficiency and reliability expectations.
Component tracking systems
Knowledge is power. Continuous improvement on motor-driven systems improves system management and spares utilization while increasing maintenance personnel productivity. To streamline your continuous improvement implementation, consider using a motor tracking system. This software captures nameplate data, hours operated, field measurements (voltage, current, flow, pressure, speed, etc.), percentage of full load, application description, pre-failure action plans and electrical cost. If you use such software, be sure it can export and import data via a standard database format such as comma separated value (CSV). Fed this basic information, the software package should calculate motor systems operating cost based on load, a key ingredient in a life-cycle cost analysis.
Detailed component tracking and pre-failure decision-making helps guide energy productivity planning organization-wide. It replaces haste-based decisions with premeditated direction on the best course of action when system improvement opportunities arise. The component action plan should include best component choices, actions needed to accommodate any system changes, replacement locations, and system life-cycle-cost data that dovetail with existing preventive and predictive maintenance programs. Detailed system component tracking and pre-failure decisions identify spares locations, whether on-site warehoused, vendor-stocked or available in-service on less critical similar systems within the facility.
Furthermore, a detailed component tracking system eliminates multiple vendor phone calls, sleepless nights and labor-intensive half-day scavenger hunts for a critical system component. To improve maintenance technician productivity, champions can keep this information on a PDA and make the information available at the touch of a button.
The myths of motor rewindingEASA decisively debunked the myth that motors lose efficiency each time they’re rewound and the organization published its study, “The Effects of Repair/Rewinding on Motor Efficiency.” The caveat is that the motor failure can’t be catastrophic and the service center must comply with shop practice quality control standards similar to EASA’s “Guidelines For Maintaining Motor Efficiency During Rebuilding” and ANSI/EASA “AR100 Recommended Practice For The Repair Of Rotating Electrical Apparatus.” It would follow that NEMA Premium Efficient motors become an even better investment, because rewinding can, theoretically, extend their useful life indefinitely. To get the most from a motor service center, look for the following characteristics:
- Practices that comply with published standards.
- Notification of damage that may affect efficiency or reliability before repairs commence.
- Familiarity with and support for improving the whole system by addressing the overall efficiency of the driven equipment, controls and ancillary equipment.
- Availability of comprehensive on-site services such as vibration analysis, alignment and motor system assessment.
- Ability to integrate systems and controls.
- Diagnostic capability.
- Root-cause failure analysis.
KPIs and LCC
Motor-driven systems can be maintained methodically using KPIs. When a system component fails and a system component must be removed, the decision to repair, replace or upgrade should be based on system KPIs and a review of best life-cycle costs. Life-cycle costing determines true cost of operating a system by considering relevant costs:
- Initial capital costs (including installation and interest)
- Supplies and consumables
- Depreciation and tax
- Other annual and periodic costs
- Effects on production (product quality and downtime)
When working with replacement components that may not outlive the system, some of these points might not be appropriate to include in the life-cycle cost calculation.
Without question, though, implementing a motor systems continuous improvement program can produce measurable results and is well worth the investment in time, human capital and money. A plant with optimized motor systems tends to produce more product or process more output, is more likely to meet production schedules and delivery dates, and is better able to reduce electrical consumption, thereby improving the bottom line.
Dennis Bowns is the director of technical services for motors on behalf of the Industrial Efficiency Alliance, Portland, Ore. Contact him at (208) 322-6999.
The Industrial Efficiency Alliance, based in Portland, Oregon, works to ensure that energy-efficient products and services are available to the industrial marketplace. Concurrent to its work in high-energy-consumption industries, such as food processing and pulp and paper, the Industrial Efficiency Alliance works with a number of vendor groups and trade allies in the motor marketplace to provide plants a “whole systems offering.”
The alliance offers a motor systems continuous energy improvement program to encourage facilities to develop and commit to a continuous energy improvement program. Each program is customized to meet the needs of specific industrial customers and frequently includes support from local and regional utilities to ensure that a coordinated customer service approach is available. Involving utilities and regional energy organizations helps increase the breadth and depth of available resources for system improvements and enhances the delivery of services at the customer’s doorstep.
The alliance also offers a number of highly customized, low- to no-cost resources and tools, including EnVINTA One-2-Five assessments, expert system assessments, plant-specific action plans, coordinated regional training and strategic energy plan development and monitoring. A specialist is assigned to each customer to produce personalized solutions to energy management needs.