What can the fan specifier or user do to feel assured that the choice of fan equipment is an optimum one? For the record, the word optimum does not necessarily mean "least expensive," nor does it mean "most expensive." An optimum choice is a fan that delivers the aerodynamic performance stated in the manufacturer's catalog.
This implies fan testing. The fan testing facility must be qualified. Performing the original testing in either the AMCA Testing Laboratory or having this lab verify the results of an AMCA Registered Laboratory ensures reliability and accuracy. The AMCA Testing Laboratory checks the references of each applicant laboratory to ensure that the facility, including hardware, procedures, and personnel produces test results of high and consistent accuracy. Laboratory registration is carried out under the provisions of AMCA 111--Laboratory Registration Program. It should be noted that while the laboratory registration fee is modest, fewer than 45 laboratories in the world meet the strict criteria of this laboratory program.
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Having established the basis for reliable accuracy, the second step is conducting a test according to ANSI/AMCA Standard 210. The means of ensuring that a manufacturer satisfies steps one and two is to look for fans that bear the AMCA Seal for "Certified Ratings - Performance." Only those fans with ratings thoroughly checked for accuracy are allowed to bear this seal. In addition, the manufacturer must periodically submit a fan, selected at random, for follow-up verification testing of a production unit. AMCA Publication 211--Certified Ratings - Air Performance--gives the requirements of the AMCA Certified Ratings Program for fans. There are ways to ensure that custom-engineered or unique fan designs that do not "fit" under the umbrella of AMCA Publication 211 are "optimum" fans.
Connection between a fan and its duct system are important. Fan rating tests are conducted in standardized configurations which are rarely exactly reproduced in the field. In most real world installations, the connections between fan and duct system have a disruptive effect on the flow conditions at the fan inlet and outlet. The effect of these flow disturbances sometimes exceed the pressure losses from friction.
Space requirements often result in a system with elbows at, or near, the fan outlet. Published values for pressure losses in elbows are based on the assumption of a uniform velocity profile entering the elbow. The velocity profile at the outlet of a fan is not uniform and an elbow located at, or near, the outlet develops a pressure loss that is significantly larger than the published handbook value.
The fact that AMCA data includes more than one hundred combinations of blast area/outlet area ratio, outlet duct lengths, and elbow positions demonstrates the complexity of developing appropriate System Effect Factors. Certain elbow positions on double inlet fans require an additional multiplier. This results in 224 factors that can be applied to a simple duct elbow in the outlet duct.
Pay attention to the path that the air stream follows in approaching the fan inlets. An air stream entering the inlet unevenly or generating spin results in loss of performance. If it is not practical to alter the flow pattern ahead of the inlet, inlet baffles usually can improve performance.
An obstruction to air flow in the plane of the fan inlet also reduces fan performance. Structural members, columns, butterfly values, blast gates, and pipes are examples of inlet obstructions.
Time spent in an analysis of System Effects is a rewarding investment. AMCA Publication 201--Fans and Systems--presents an analysis of the System Effects to take into account in the design of a system. An optimum system design provides long-range energy savings while helping to maintain the profit in a job.
Sound and movement
There are two more important aspects of selecting and using a fan. The first is the relationship between air performance and sound and the second is the operating point.
When fan specifiers and buyers look for an air performance rating, they seek information on airflow, pressure, speed, and power. These quantities are conveniently represented in multi-rating tables or on a fan performance curve. It should come as no surprise that each air performance point has a corresponding sound performance point, given in decibels of sound power. But where the several values associated with air performance may be easily represented in tables or on performance curves, each corresponding sound performance point requires values for the eight octave bands necessary to describe the distribution of sound energy over the frequency range. This allows any necessary attenuation to be designed into the silencer in the event that a suitable one is not available off-the-shelf. But eight octave bands present the user and manufacturer with a problem: how does one handle eight times the data (for sound) as is needed for air performance? Having posed that question, let's leave it for a moment and consider the origin of sound performance data.