White Papers

on 'Control Systems'

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  • Intelligent motor control centers lay the foundation for improvements in manufacturing efficiency and reliability

    Measures to increase equipment and personnel safety in manufacturing are reflected in new approaches and technologies designed to help minimize the risk of workplace dangers. One rapidly growing area of focus is reducing the potentially serious hazards associated with arc-flash events. This white paper examines the causes of arc flash, discusses the standards guiding arc-flash safety and details the role arc-resistant motor control centers (MCCs) play in helping contain arc energy. It also highlights the key features of an effective arc-resistant MCC design.

    Managing safety hazards and reducing risks are top priorities for manufacturers across all sectors of industry. With a multitude of potential dangers and new ones continuously emerging, companies must be diligent in their ongoing efforts while considering new approaches and technologies to improve plant safety. One rapidly growing area of focus is implementing techniques and practices designed to reduce hazards and minimize risk for workers who must enter an area with an electrical arc-flash potential.

  • Devising an effective and affordable dust control strategy using water sprays

    Dealing with dust is no longer optional in most regions of the world, but when it comes to dust control systems, options abound. Making the best choice for your operations can get complicated since there are dozens of factors to consider. The more you know about dust and the various techniques to control it, the greater your chances are of specifying a system that will get the job done at the lowest possible cost. In this white paper, we'll delve into dust and review how to go about devising a strategy for dealing with it.

    Robert Franta
  • Mercury control with regenerative activated coke technology

    Many issues face coal-fired utilities with respect to environmental demands, some based on regulations and others based on local pressures. These include increasingly stringent control of criteria pollutants, anticipated federal and state requirements for mercury control, issues revolving around water use and water disposal, plume visibility, overall plant thermal efficiency, and the future considerations for climate change issues. For utilities that burn PRB and other low-sulfur coals, an exemplary reference project is the reconstruction of the Isogo Power Station by J-Power. This project replaced two vintage coal-fired units, and within the same site limits, more than doubled generation capacity to 2x600MW with ultrasupercritical boilers fitted with SCR, ESPs and advanced generation ReACT technology. The controls provide low emissions from the high-efficiency coal-fired boiler plant and allow the plant to operate as the cleanest coal-fired power plant in the world in terms of emissions intensity, at emissions levels that are equivalent to natural gas-fired power plants.

    H. James Peters
  • Control and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors

    Optimum configuration for control system, instrumentation, electrical and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressor is presented. Reciprocating compressors are the most flexible and most efficient compressors available. Recommendations regarding inter-stage pressure control, capacity control system, temperature control, performance monitoring, local control panel, irregularity and condition monitoring are discussed.

    Installed reciprocating compressor horsepower is approximately three times greater than that of centrifugal compressors, and maintenance costs of reciprocating compressors are approximately 3.5 times greater than those for centrifugal compressors. The expected level of reliability and availability of reciprocating compressors is very high, and it presents a real challenge. Advanced methods of control and condition monitoring shall be applied in order to obtain the high level of performance, safety and reliability.

    Amin Almasi, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A.
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