An engineering group sent RFQs for a compressor that could produce an average of 200 cfm at 125 psi. The engineering group required the use of VSD compressors because it knew the system would experience some variance in demand and because it wanted to claim an energy rebate from the state. Based only on this information, a single 50 hp VSD compressor was selected by the user.
A few weeks after installation, the user’s system began shutting down because of low-pressure alarms. What went wrong?
This scenario illustrates how incomplete information can affect the production capabilities of a plant. If an audit had been performed, it would have shown that the facility requires 175 cfm 30% of the time and 200 cfm 60% of the time. However, during one important sandblasting process, the facility’s compressed air demand rises to 250 cfm; when this happens, the 50 hp VSD compressor is insufficient.
A better solution would have been a variable-speed compressor that accommodates the entire 175 to 250 cfm range or a separate smaller fixed-speed compressor paired with the VSD machine to provide the additional 50 cfm only during the sandblasting process. Ultimately, this manufacturer will feel the burden of paying more every month in electricity costs and maintenance for the air system long after the installation.
The role of CFM in performance and efficiency
Accurately determining CFM demands is a critical first step in selecting an air compressor. Improperly sizing a compressor because this step was skipped can cost thousands of dollars in wasted electricity if an oversized compressor is selected. On the other hand, if a facility requires more demand than originally thought, a new compressor may be insufficient.
Critical topics to understand include the differences among CFM, ACFM, and SCFM and how to compare the specifications of different air compressors:
- CFM (cubic feet per minute) describes the volume flow rate of compressed air. Note that CFM must be further defined to include pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, as changes in these measurements will affect the necessary CFM that is delivered to the process.
- ACFM (actual CFM) is the air flow at local conditions. For example, if a compressor is installed in Denver, then the ACFM is lower than if it were installed at sea level.
- SCFM (standard CFM) is the amount of air flow at sea level, 68°F, and 0% relative humidity. ACFM must be used to determine exactly how much air is needed in a facility. ACFM can then be easily converted into SCFM and used as a reference for an apples-to-apples comparison of different air compressors.
How can a user identify which compressors are the most efficient? Compressors vary in CFM ratings, horsepower ratings, and total package energy use, which is a lot to research and compare. Also, for compressors with the same advertised horsepower, the CFM output can vary by as much as 25% among companies and models. The goal is to match the right amount of CFM at the necessary pressure with the lowest horsepower possible. This will allow the facility to manufacture at the lowest cost and generate the highest profit.
The Compressed Air and Gas Institute (CAGI) is an association comprising compressed air manufacturers, each of whom agreed to have its compressors independently tested and verified. Once verified, certified data sheets are published publicly by CAGI on each company website with key information that customers need to make the buying decision easier.
These CAGI data sheets are the air compressor version of a car’s Monroney or window sticker. Each CAGI sheet lists the amount of CFM the compressor model produces at a given pressure, the maximum psi that can be produced, and the efficiency of the compressor in kW/100 cfm, which is similar to an automobile’s miles per gallon (mpg) rating.
Figure 1 shows a CAGI data sheet from a 100 hp compressor rated for 100 psi, as indicated in blue boxes on lines 4 and 6. Important measurements to consider are indicated in green and include:
- Line 3, which lists the capacity of the compressor in CFM at the full load operating pressure (100 psi in this case). Notice that this compressor produces 525 cfm.
- Line 12, which shows the amount of electricity (in kW) required to create 100 cfm at the listed pressure (100 psi). This measurement is referred to as the specific power of the compressor and is the best apples-to-apples comparison of compressor efficiency among different compressor models. This value can be used to calculate the actual cost to run the compressor; in this case, the compressor uses 16.7 kw to generate 100 cfm.
Also, when replacing an existing compressor, I recommend checking the CFM rating and then choosing a new compressor with the same CFM rating. It might be unwise to swap out a compressor for another one with the same horsepower rating, because the newer model is likely able to produce more CFM while using less horsepower. A compressor with a smaller horsepower rating but an equal rate of airflow can lower your energy costs without any reduction in productivity.
Follow a disciplined process to savings
To make an educated choice, it is critical to understand a system’s compressed air demand profile and then determine how to deliver the right amount of compressed air at the lowest overall cost. All compressors are not designed equally, so this can be challenging; however, conducting an audit in advance and then matching the CFM requirements with the smallest possible horsepower compressor can greatly simplify the process.
Remember, a higher-horsepower air compressor uses more electricity than a smaller one, so the important question to ask is: “Am I getting any more CFM for my increased cost?” Following this process will result in the lowest overall cost of ownership and will help prevent buyer’s remorse.