7 sources of leadership power

Tom Moriarty explains the difference between personal power and position power.

By Tom Moriarty, P.E., CMRP, contributing editor

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One can define leadership as influencing the activities of others toward accomplishing a goal. And we can define power as a leader’s potential to influence the activities of others toward accomplishing a goal. Without a source of power there can be no leadership.

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One can define two power bases: position and personal. Position power is the power given to the leader by the organization. It’s the power granted to the leader based on the job title.

Personal power is power other people give to the leader. That includes the leader’s subordinates, peers and bosses. Personal power is an indication of the level of commitment others have to the leader. Personal power is linked to one’s personality, competence and integrity. Table 1 outlines the seven key types of power.

Source Type Influence on others
Coercive power Position The ability to impose sanctions or punishment to gain compliance
Reward power Position The ability to provide rewards or recognition to gain compliance
Legitimate power Position The right to influence the activities of others based on job title or position
Expert power Personal Respect gained based on skills, expertise or experience
Referent power Personal Positive personal traits or integrity
Information power Position and personal Possession of or access to, valuable information
Connection power Position and personal Access to others who can provide rewards or sanctions
Table 1. The table shows the seven major sources of a leader’s power.


A leader should consider these sources of power and be able to incorporate them appropriately. A leader should consider the best sources of power to be employed to achieve success and effectiveness.

So, now you should be asking yourself: “Is there one best and preferred source of power?” The answer is yes, if you’re only concerned with immediate success. For instance, imagine a fire breaks out and you need to ensure a process for volatile hydrocarbons is shut down safely. In this case, position power is the best choice. In most other situations you need to move among the sources of power. Table 2 shows examples of actions that might enhance various sources of power.

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